5 Reasons Embedded Systems Designers Should Embrace HCI

As an embedded software engineer who is interested in bringing HCI design practice to embedded devices, I often hear people say, “Oh but we don’t have a display on our device, so I’m not sure we need that”. Somehow, the embedded systems community seems to have decided that well designed interactions only apply to software with a GUI. I’d like to argue that’s not true. In fact, embedded devices not only need good interaction design, but they need it more than traditional (computer-based) software.

1. Embedded devices can’t fall back on default interactions

Wacom CintiqTraditional software solutions can always fall back to the screen/keyboard/mouse interaction. For example, when developing image editing software, you can always start with a mouse and keyboard interface, despite the fact that a tablet interface may be better.

But embedded devices are almost defined by their lack of mouse and keyboard. The embedded designer has no default interaction, they need to make the difficult choices up front about what form of input they can support and how they can relay feedback or information.

The embedded designer has no default interaction, they need to make the difficult choices up front.

A very simple example of this is designing a device that uses WiFi for connectivity. Entering a WEP key is challenging under any circumstances, imagine how much more so without a real keyboard. Is it even possible without a display?

2. Embedded devices go everywhere

Fitbit OneThis means they are exposed to the elements, challenging lighting conditions and portability constraints in ways that regular software is not. For e.g. wearable fitness devices often get ruined by sweat which can be quite corrosive to metals. The latest offerings, such as the Fitbit One, are now sweatproof and rainproof, but you can imagine in the early devices, the software developers had to contend with false readings due to moisture on the sensor.

3. Embedded devices are not the center of attention

Of course, they can be. Certainly, the latest phones and tablets garner a lot of attention. But a vast majority of embedded devices have to operate in a context where the user has other tasks and goals taking their attention. Attention is an increasingly precious and scarce resource as more and more of our devices compete for it. A well-designed device should work well in the background, and capture your attention judiciously, if at all.

A well-designed device should work well in the background, and capture your attention judiciously, if at all.

Think about car entertainment systems, they’re best when easily operated, preferably without even having to glance at them, because the user’s main goal is driving, not playing music. In fact, to avoid users taking their hands off the wheel, most newer vehicles provide controls embedded in the steering wheel itself.

4. Embedded devices want you to twist them, pull them, bop them

Remember that old game, Bop It? Twisting, pulling, yes even bopping are affordances. If you haven’t heard the term, Wikipedia says, “An affordance is a quality of an object, or an environment, which allows an individual to perform an action. For example, a knob affords twisting, and perhaps pushing, while a cord affords pulling.”

Keyboards and mice have some affordances but they’ve been well explored. Embedded devices have all sorts of great new affordances, because they’re not tied to a particular form.  They can take advantage of the many ways that we interact with the natural world around us.

Embedded devices enable a whole new universe of interactions that are unexplored solely because the keyboard and mouse didn’t afford them.

A company called Blast Motion creates pucks that can be embedded into golf clubs and tennis rackets to analyze your swing. The interface is simply swinging your golf club. Pinch-to-zoom and multi-touch didn’t really become popular until you had to use your hand to interact with your iPhone. Embedded devices enable a whole new universe of interactions that are unexplored solely because the keyboard and mouse didn’t afford them.

5. Customers care.

Finally, embedded designers should care because their customers do. Back in the mid 2000s, everyone thought the cellphone market in the US was saturated, and the only way to sell phones was to make ultra low cost versions for China and India. Then, Apple came out with the first iPhone in 2007, and all of a sudden, everyone was willing to pay $499 for a cellphone.

Actions that were frustrating before seemed effortless, intuitive… fun, even.

Why? There was nothing special about the hardware and software, technologically speaking. What was special was the interaction experience it gave users. Actions that were frustrating before seemed effortless, intuitive… fun, even. Do you know how many grandparents are happy to use an iPhone? Grandparents! The very same ones that you spend hours setting up Blu-ray players and digital frames for every Christmas.

So, what now?

Well, that’s the longest rant yet. But I absolutely believe that embedded devices are the next frontier for computing. Low power networking, sensing technologies and fast processors are converging right now making a lot of amazing products possible. But these products won’t go far unless we take the next step.

The only way to move the product from the hands of a few early adopters to the masses is to learn about interaction design, to think about users, their context and goals, and iterate the design until the product is an absolute delight to use.

To start, Don Norman’s excellent book The Design of Everyday Things will get you to look at everything around you as a designed interface.
The Interaction Design Encyclopedia is a great resource explaining the terms and concepts.
Scott Klemmer, Stanford professor and HCI star, has a free HCI course on Coursera.
Are you going to start thinking about how to design interactions with your product? Post your thoughts below!

Sense The Excitement

Google Sky Map

Google Sky Map

For a long time, I was a bit of a Luddite when it came to smartphone technology. I spend so much time around computers, I didn’t really see the need for another one in my pocket. But when I finally got one, I realized that smartphones are, in fact, so much more than the average computer. It’s not the portability of the device – yes, you can take it everywhere all the time – but what’s truly amazing is that it knows. It knows where you took it, it can see, hear, sense its location, position and acceleration.

I can get directions to anywhere from here. I can have it listen to a song and tell me who sings it. I can point it at a star in the sky and learn the name. On the other hand, my significantly more powerful traditional computer can’t remember my home address for directions, even though it never goes anywhere!

It Knows!

The magic, of course, is all in the sensors. My LG Optimus V, a fairly low-end Android smartphone, has a GPS sensor, accelerometer, gyroscope, compass, camera and microphone. It’s this varied collection of sensors that makes a smartphone such a technological leap forward. And it is just the beginning. With new devices that sense your activity levels, health, climate, the possibilities are endless.

My [..] fairly low-end Android smartphone has a GPS sensor, accelerometer, gyroscope, compass, camera and microphone. It’s this varied collection of sensors that makes a smartphone such a technological leap forward.

The FitBit

The FitBit

The Fitbit device uses sensors to report your daily levels of activity so you can limit sedentary behaviour and increase activity during the day. It can even monitor your sleep patterns at night. LumoBack is a newly funded Kickstarter project that senses your posture and delivers a gentle vibration when you slouch – a virtual “Sit up straight!” from Mom.

Previously, I mentioned Twine, a sensor module you can use for a variety of applications in the home. Similarly, Node is a powerhouse version of the same idea with modules for sensing magnetism, altitude, barometric pressure, humidity etc.

Txting Sheep!

Txting Sheep!

I could go on, but I’ll leave you with the most entertaining one I’ve seen of late. Swiss scientists have been developing a collar that will allow sheep to cry wolf all by themselves. A heart rate monitor on the collar detects a sudden rise in the heart rate of the sheep, signalling likely danger, such as a wolf. The collar can then send a text message directly to the shepherd.

“OMG, Wolf!”

Which sensor-based devices do you find exciting?
Do you have any you’d recommend?

The front page image for this article is by Flickr user amcunningham72